The stages of the scientific and technological revolution varied from country to country or region to region.
Industrial revolutions have their origins in the late 18th century.
England became the founder of the industrial revolution because it had the necessary technical and social preconditions, which helped England to overtake all the countries of Europe and start a new stage in the development of the world economy.
In Europe, several general stages can be identified.
The first stage of the Scientific and Technical Revolution (STR) in Europe (Industrial Revolution, mid-18th century - mid-19th century) is associated with the transition from manual labor to machine production, the appearance of the first steam engines and the development of the textile industry.
The second stage of the STR in Europe (development of science and technology, late 19th century - early 20th century) is characterized by the appearance of new scientific approaches such as electrodynamics and quantum mechanics, as well as important inventions such as radio and telephone.
The third stage of STR in Europe (post-industrial society, from the 1960s to the present) is associated with the development of information and computer technology, the creation of the Internet and telecommunications, as well as the development of biotechnology and the use of robotics.
In addition, in Europe a separate stage of STR is often identified, associated with the transition to environmentally stable development, which began at the end of the 20th century and continues to the present day. As part of this stage, alternative and renewable energy sources are being actively developed, and environmentally friendly technologies and production are being created.
STR in Europe allowed the USA to use European, and especially English, technical experience. The transition to industrial methods took a relatively short period of time and was completed almost at the same time as many European countries. The American economy developed at an unusually rapid tempo. As a result of the rapid industrial growth, the United States became an industrialized country and the U.S. industry became the second largest in the world in terms of production.
In the USA, the first stage of STR (STR formation, 1945-1965) was associated with the development of nuclear power and rocket technology, such as the Manhattan Project and the creation of the first atomic bomb. This stage was also marked by the creation of the first computers, which were used for scientific and military purposes.
The second stage of STR in the United States (Information Revolution, 1965-1985) is characterized by the emergence of personal computers, the development of telecommunications, and the application of military technology in the civil sphere. During this period, companies such as IBM and Apple were created, and the first operating systems and software were developed.
The third stage of STR in the USA (convergence of STR and biotechnology, 1985-2005) is associated with the development of new materials, genetic engineering and biotechnology, as well as the widespread use of the Internet. This period saw the creation of companies such as Google and Amazon, as well as research into gene code and pharmaceuticals.
The fourth stage of STR in the United States (the digital economy, since 2005) is characterized by the development of the Internet of Things, artificial intelligence, robotics, and other digital-related technologies. Companies such as Facebook and Tesla continue to grow during this period, and there is a lot of research into blockchain and cryptocurrencies.
Japan began its industrial revolution after World War II (late 1940s to mid-1950s), which involved the rapid modernization of Japanese industry and the development and production of electronic devices.
The second stage of STR in Japan (1960s - 1970s) is characterized by the development of new technologies such as semiconductors, video technology and laser devices. During this period, Japan became one of the world's leading exporters of electronics.
The third stage of STR in Japan (80s - 90s of the XX century) was associated with the creation and development of new industries such as computer technology, automotive industry, semiconductor production and other advanced technologies.
The fourth stage of STR in Japan (present) is associated with the creation and development of new technologies such as artificial intelligence, cybersecurity and biotechnology. Japan remains the leading country in the production of high-tech and advanced goods. As in other countries, Japanese scientific and technological advances also focus on environmental issues, energy efficiency, and environmental protection.
The first stage of STR in China (economic reforms, 1978-present) was associated with the initiation of economic reforms and the opening to foreign investment. This stage led to the rapid development of the Chinese economy and its recognition as one of the world's leading economies.
The second stage of STR in China (technology and industry development, 1990s-present) is characterized by large-scale development of industry and technology, the creation of broadband Internet, the development and launch of the Beidou satellite navigation system and other new technologies.
The third stage of STR in China (strengthening of positions in the world economy and technology, present) is associated with strengthening of China's position in the world economy, creation of new technologies and their promotion in the international market. China is actively working on environmentally friendly technologies, creation of renewable energy sources, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and other measures to protect the environment.
STR in Russia also had its own series of stages.
The first stage of STR in Russia (early 20th century - early 1930s) was associated with the development of heavy industry, the development of mechanization and the production of new types of materials.
The second stage of STR in Russia (1940s - 1950s) is characterized by the creation of nuclear weapons, the space industry and the development of computer technology.
The third stage of STR in Russia (1960s-70s) was associated with the development of new types of energy, such as nuclear power plants and hydropower, as well as the improvement of the aviation industry and the creation of new modes of transportation.
The fourth stage of STR in Russia (1990s - present) is associated with the restructuring of the economy and technology, the creation of new industries and advancement in information technology. In recent years, Russia has been actively working on the development of technologies in the field of artificial intelligence, cryptography, cybersecurity and other advanced technologies. The development of renewable energy sources and environmentally friendly technologies is also a priority.