The essence of innovation and their classification
theme 1
  1. The essence of innovation
  2. Classification and life cycle of innovations
  3. Innovation in the world
4. Innovative Belarus
  1. The essence of innovation
Innovation is an implemented novelty that has provided an increase in the efficiency of processes or product quality. It is the result of human intellectual and creative activity.
The definition comes from the Latin word "novato," which means "renewal," and the prefix "in," which translates to "in the direction of."
The key characteristics of an innovation are its practical value and economic benefit. That is, innovation brings profit to commercial organizations. It makes it possible to survive a crisis, improve the quality of work or increase the value of improved goods.

For example, a factory introduced conveyorized assembly of parts and thus reduced costs and increased productivity. They can sell and earn more.

And also innovation can change the life of the world community. Cellular communications, the Internet and personal computers have already done so.
Approaches to definition

It is possible to recognize process and object approaches to the definition of innovation.

object approach

Using the object approach, we consider innovation as the end result of a change in a product or technology. Like the invention that resulted. For example, robotic smart technology, artificial intelligence or neural networks.

process approach
In a process approach, the term is expanded. Innovation is considered as a process of development and implementation of new technologies.

This approach is used in real management practice. In this case, the most important task of innovation is not only the final result, but also the implementation of processes for the development of innovations in production, adaptation of employees to the new format of work and involvement of managers.
2. Classification and life cycle of innovations
Types of innovations
1. According to the sphere of application:
  • material and technical;
  • social;
  • marketing;
  • financial;
  • organizational and managerial;
  • legal;
  • pedagogical.
2. By continuity:
  • complementary (changes that do not displace old processes);
  • replacing (automated conveyors that replaced manual labor);
  • breakthrough (Tesla cars that can change the world economy and human life).
3. By scale:
  • global scale:
  • new in the country;
  • new in the field;
  • new in the organization.
4. By nature of application:
  • product
  • process
Product innovations include the use of new materials, new semi-finished products and components; obtaining principally new products.
Process innovations mean new methods of production organization (new technologies).
5. According to the stimulus of appearance (source):
  • caused by the development of science and technology;
  • caused by the needs of production;
  • caused by the needs of the market.
6. By place in the system (at the enterprise, in the company):
  • innovations at the enterprise's input (raw materials, equipment, information, etc.);
  • innovations at the enterprise's output (products, services, technologies, information, etc.);
  • innovations of the enterprise's system structure (managerial, production).
The main stages of the life cycle of a new product:
New product development
At the stage of new product development (product development, production preparation) the producer organizes the innovation process. As a matter of fact, at this stage the investment of capital takes place.
Market entry
The stage of market entry (withdrawal) shows the period of introduction of a new product to the market. The product begins to bring money. The duration of this stage depends on the intensity of advertising, on the inflation rate and on the efficiency of new product outlets.
Market growth
The stage of market development (growth) is associated with the growth of sales of the product on the market. Its duration shows the time during which a new product is actively sold and the market reaches a certain limit of saturation with this product.
Market stabilization
Market stabilization stage (maturity) means that the market is already saturated with this product. Its sales volume has reached a certain limit and there will be no further growth in sales volume.
Market decrease
The stage of market decrease (decline) is the stage at which there is a decline in sales of the product, but there is still demand for the product and, therefore, there are all the objective prerequisites for an increase in the sales volume of the product.
3. Innovation in the world
The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), a specialized agency of the United Nations system, assists its 193 member states in developing a balanced international IP legal framework to meet the evolving needs of society:
  • provides business services for obtaining IP rights;
  • provides capacity building programs to assist developing countries;
  • provides free access to unique IP information banks.
For 16 years, WIPO has been publishing annual reports on the Global Innovation Index, which characterizes the innovative development of different nations.
Global Ranking GII 2023
According to WIPO's Global Innovation Index (GII) 2023, the world's most innovation-advanced economies in 2023 are:


(ranked 1st in 2022)
(3rd place in 2022)
United States of America
(2nd place in 2022)
United Kingdom
(4th in 2022)
(7th in 2022)
(9th in 2022)
(5th in 2022)
(8th in 2022)
(10th in 2022)
Republic of Korea
(6th in 2022)
(12th in 2022)
(11th in 2022)
Key conclusions of GII 2023:
  • Scientific publications, research and development (R&D) activities, venture capital transactions (their number but not their value) and patents continued to show growth rates that reached unprecedented levels. However, the rate of growth was not as exceptionally high as in 2021.
  • In 2022, R&D investment by corporations with the highest spending on this type of activity reached an all-time high of $1.1 trillion. They increased R&D spending by about 7.4 percent in 2022 (compared to a 15 percent increase in 2021).
  • In the artificial intelligence development sector, the largest increase in R&D investment in 2022 was among graphic card and chip manufacturers. Other industries that had reduced R&D spending during the pandemic, such as automotive, tourism and leisure, invested heavily in this line of business again in 2022.
  • The only region that did not see a decline in investment in 2022 was Africa.
Artificial Intelligence
According to many observers, the current AI boom began about seven years ago. It followed a series of ups and downs, often referred to as “AI summers and winters.”
A short history of AI
The term "artificial intelligence" was proposed at a conference at Dartmouth, and AI was founded as an academic discipline.
The golden years of AI are government funding for prospective, logic-based approaches to problem solving.
High expectations coupled with limited capacity of AI programs result in the first "AI winter," when funding and interest in AI research decrease.
The appearance of knowledge-based expert systems has brought new advances and a change in the focus of research and funding towards this form of AI.
The second "AI winter" begins with the sudden collapse of the specialized equipment industry in 1987. The hype around AI generates negative feedback from governments and investors as expert systems demonstrate their limitations and prove expensive to update and maintain.
Optimism about AI is returning and growing. New successes are being celebrated due to increased computing power, and AI is becoming data-driven. In 1997, IBM's DeepBlue computer wins against world chess champion Kasparov. In 2002, Amazon uses automated systems to make recommendations. In 2011, Apple releases Siri and IBM's Watson wins over two human champions on the television quiz show Jeopardy.
Increasing data availability, connectivity and computing power are enabling breakthroughs in machine learning, mainly in neural networks and deep learning, opening a new era of increased funding and optimism about the potential of AI. In 2012, Google's unmanned cars perform autonomous navigation, and in 2016, Google AlphaGo defeats the world champion in the challenging board game Go.
Top 30 patent applicants by number of patent families
Companies represent 26 of the top 30 AI patent applicants worldwide

Top patent applicants among universities and public research organizations in selected

locations, by number of patent families

CAS (China) and ETRI (Republic of Korea) rank first and second in patent filings among universities and public research organizations

10 trends of innovative development of the global community

(according to Alibaba DAMO Academy)

4. Innovative Belarus
Every year Belarus develops dozens of innovative products that have great potential for commercialization. There is a demand for innovations both in the country and abroad.
Bright examples of innovations
Belarusian industry keeps up with the times and strives to produce new and unique things. For example, the BELAZ heavy-duty dump truck with a payload capacity of 450 tons created in Belarus is listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the largest two-axle truck on the planet. It is already used at one of the coal mines in Kuzbass. Belkommunmash has mastered the production of electric buses, more than 80 units have already been manufactured and sold. Open Joint Stock Company Planar has developed equipment for the formation of topological structures on photographic templates, which has no analogues in the world and is already supplied to the markets of Germany, Israel, the Republic of Korea and China.

The high-tech equipment for authentication of documents, money and securities from the Belarusian company Regula is also of interest. It is used by border services, law enforcers and banks from more than 80 countries.

Special attention is paid to medicine. Belarusian clinics have introduced a method of surgical treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysm using an exoprosthesis made of biological material. This development reduces surgical trauma, the duration of treatment of patients and the number of postoperative complications. The cost of treatment is reduced by 20%. In Belarus, the reduction of treatment costs at the initial stage of the method implementation has already exceeded $400 thousand.
Working under sanctions
In the conditions of sanctions policy of certain states, the issue of import substitution is of paramount importance for the economic security of our country.

The State Committee on Science and Technology analyzes the needs of industries of the real sector of the economy in the replacement of critical imports. And on the basis of requests from the republican bodies of state administration it provides information on research and development, the results of which can be used in the organization of production of import-substituting goods. Such developments in Belarus are registered in the state register of R&D.

The country has adopted common priority areas of scientific, scientific-technical and innovation activities in Belarus for 2021-2025. They include digital, information and communication, biological, medical, pharmaceutical and chemical technologies, energy, construction, ecology and environmental management. Also on the list of priorities are mechanical engineering, instrumentation and innovative materials, agro-industrial and food technologies, and ensuring the security of man, society and the state.
The State Program of Innovative Development for 2021-2025
The State Program of Innovative Development for 2021-2025 is already the fourth one. It includes 75 innovative projects to create new high-tech production facilities in different regions of Belarus. In 2021-2022, 18 projects have been completed, including the formation of a bank of stem cells, valve and vascular allografts at the Minsk Scientific and Practical Center of Surgery, Transplantology and Hematology, and the organization of production of medical glass and medical glass products at Belmedsteklo.
Innovation infrastructure
In Belarus, much attention is paid to the development of innovation infrastructure, which ensures the transfer of the results of scientific and technological activities into production. A network of 17 technoparks covers all regions of the country. In addition, there are six technology transfer centers and 94 industry laboratories. For example, the sectoral laboratory of the tire industry at BGTU has adjusted the formula of tread rubber on tires, increasing wear resistance. And the branch laboratory of applied space technologies at BGU prepared two flight models of the BGU Sat-2 scientific and educational satellite for launch.

Special attention is paid to the development of domestic high technologies. The national centralized innovation fund is allocated for their development on a non-refundable basis. Projects of the V and VI levels of technological modes based on foreign technologies are financed from the Belarusian Innovation Fund on preferential terms, and all other projects are financed on a repayable basis.

Several important developments are planned to be completed in 2023. These include an unmanned drone-based complex for the application of plant protection products in agriculture, and an electric bus for passenger transportation at airports. The technology of processing waste generated during the storage of petroleum products to produce bituminous waterproofing materials and fuel mixtures will also be created. In addition, it is planned to produce a defoamer based on silicone oil with reduced ability to gel, as well as a composite material based on polymer matrix modified with nanostructured carbon additives for antistatic coatings.

Work will continue in high-tech industries such as micro- and nanoelectronics, electric transportation, instrumentation, pharmaceuticals, industrial biotechnology, and information services.
Quiz on theme 1
Test your knowledge of theme 1!
Take the quiz
Select the correct definition of the term Innovation:
Show results
What are some approaches to defining the term "Innovation" ?
Show results
By the nature of application, innovations are divided into:
Show results
How to define the abbreviation WIPO?
Show results
The world's most innovation-advanced economy in 2023 is ...
Show results
Ups! Try again!
Ups! Try again!
Ups! Try again!
Ups! Try again!
Well done! Great knowledge!